For students who understand the concept of addition, subtraction, etc., but cannot do the mental math calculations, slash marks can be made next to the numbers for the student to count.

For students who are having difficulty with the language used in word problems, pictures and symbols may be added to clarify what items are being calculated and what process is involved. For example, “You baked one dozen cookies and took them to a party. After the party, there were three cookies remaining. How many cookies were eaten?”, could be paired with an image of twelve cookies, a minus (—) sign, three cookies and an equal (=) sign.

For students who do not use written language, when giving students a page containing different geometric figures and asking them to label each one a circle, square or triangle, provide a labeled model of each at the top of the page and ask students to draw lines from each figure to the one at the top of the page that it matches.

When asking students to solve addition problems, pair equations with pictures of the items to be added (e.g. For 4 + 4 = ?, put pictures of 4 apples and 4 apples next to the problem).

When asking students to label a variety of geometric figures, provide a labeled model of each figure at the top of the page.

Pair word problems with pictorial equivalents (e.g. images of items being counted) and symbols (e.g. +,—, x, ÷, =).

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