Strategy

Repeated Readings

Read Naturally, Monitoring Fluency, Timed Repeated Readings

UDL 6.1

Repeated Reading is a reading fluency strategy in which students are given repeated opportunities to read a short passage (typically 50-200 words) as fluently as possible in under a minute. Students who need help with fluency and comprehension will benefit from this strategy. In a one-to-one setting, the student reads the read a passage at their independent level (95% accuracy or above) for a minute. The teacher marks the teacher copy for miscues and where the student stopped at one minute, and marks the charts the score. Then the teacher reviews the miscues and reads the entire passage with the student following along. Last, the student practices the text repeatedly for 3 to 4 minutes on their own using the minute timer, focusing on fluency, more than accuracy. They can come back to the teacher for the final reading check. The teacher marks the word count on the student’s WCPM progress chart.

Implementation Tips

Introduce the Strategy
Model reading fluently (appropriate reading rate and accurately) and also model reading to the students slowly. Pose questions to the students about which they liked best? Which reading sounded best? Which could they understand best? Talk about why reading fluency is important: "Reading fluently helps us to understand what we are reading!"
Supplies Needed
Maintain an organized routine so that your one-on-one timed readings are quick and easy. Organize a basket with all of the materials needed before starting: a kid-friendly stopwatch, different colored color pencils, student and teacher copies of the text, and individualized chart based on student expectations and goals.
Monitor Progress
Graph student’s reading rate for both the initial reading and the final reading [[ https://www.mshouser.com/instructional-coaching/tracking-my-progress-fluency | on this chart ]] and in different colors. Reading rates are private and charts can be kept in the student’s reading notebook. Set student goals for the year based on their beginning-of-the-year word count per minute (WCPM). Each grade level has a specific WCPM expectation that can be found [[http://www.readingrockets.org/article/fluency-norms-chart | at ReadingRockets.org]].
Passage Tips
Select passages that are between 50-200 words, depending on your student’s beginning-of-the-year level. Passages can be at the student’s independent reading level, which is at 95% accuracy, so that they can practice the passage on their own after the first read. Use a sheet protector to cover and dry-erase mark the copies of the passages for repeated use.
Adapt to Student Needs
Monitor and assess what skills are standing in the way of student fluency. For example, students may have trouble with phonemic awareness or other phonics skills that make it difficult to sound out new words. Students may also need more practice with sight words in a list.
Comprehension Tie-ins
Include comprehension activities after the final reading for a learning extension. Students can answer the questions about the passage, using explicit and implicit knowledged learned. After reading the entire passage, students can write a short summary in their own words.
Practice Without Timer First
Create a sense of confidence in the process before timing the readings. Students should feel a sense ease with the process so that it is natural to read a page repeatedly. Emphasize speed rather than accuracy.
Provide a Checklist
Breakdown the practice into smaller chunks and create a checklist. Steps might include reading to him/herself using a whisper phone, reading to a peer, reading to a sibling, or reading to an adult. Each step should be signed by a parent, teacher, or in some cases another student. This creates accountability for the steps and ensures the students are practices.

Examples

Song Lyrics
Every week the teacher chooses an old or current pop song (ex. Kids pop songs take current songs and make them appropriate to read) and projects it on the smartboard or screen. During morning meeting, students and teacher echo read the song lyrics together, before listening to the music. Students are then given a copy of the lyrics that they glue into their fluency notebook and sing along with the music. Throughout the week they must read the song 3 times to someone at home. After each reading, the person (ex. Big brother, guardian or parent) signs their name and comments on the students reading. Previously a letter was sent home explaining the purpose and encourages comments related to fluency and expression). On Friday the class performs a reading of the song focusing on expression and fluency.
Introduction to the Strategy
The teacher has assessed students for the correct level of accuracy and reading rate. Research states that “students scoring 10 or more words below the 50th percentile using the average score of two unpracticed readings from grade-level materials need a fluency-building program.” (i.e., 4th grader’s fall score is 84 WCPM, but should be reading at 94 WCPM.) then they will benefit from this strategy. Teachers should introduce the strategy with the appropriate supplies and an individualized chart made for the student. There is a permanent line for the grade-level benchmark. The cold reading WCPM is charted in one color. The hot reading is charted in another color. Lines are drawn to connect the same color points to show improvement.

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