Strategy

Recasting An Auditory Message

Message Recasting

UDL 3.3

Recasting An Auditory Message is a listening tool in which a teacher repeats a student’s utterances and expands each message or adjusts it to be grammatically correct (e.g., a teacher recasts a student's statement of "I eated snack," by replying, "Oh, you ate your snack quickly. It must have been delicious!"). A teacher can use a student’s simple utterances or even gestures, such as pointing or reaching for an item, when recasting and expanding messages into complete sentences. When presenting a recast auditory message, a teacher first makes sure to be within close proximity to the student (e.g., within range of a student’s hearing equipment). Presenting recast auditory messages using a reduced pace also helps to ensure that the student is able to process the newly modeled utterance. Recasting an Auditory Message helps students of all ages expand their language skills since very basic language skills are required in order for this strategy to be used.

Implementation Tips

Recasting Techniques
Use a variety of recasting techniques to expose learners to language, such as repetition and extensions (e.g., when the student utters “hat off,” the teacher recasts “Yes, you can take your hat off. It is warm in here, but cold outside.”), or recasting phrases into questions (e.g., teacher recasts, “Do you want your hat off?”).
Reviewing Individualized Objectives
Review the current speech/language and auditory objectives that a student with hearing loss is working on in order to help prioritize what might need to be recast in a student’s messages (e.g., discrimination objectives, grammatical markers such as, the /s/ sound or past tense articles).
Building Understanding
Begin recasting messages that are simple (e.g., 3-4 word messages that need to be fixed grammatically). To be sure a student with hearing loss is focused and attending when initially introducing this strategy, provide recast messages during times with limited auditory distractions (e.g., small group work, 1:1 conferring).
Using Effective Prompts
Prompt a student before Recasting An Auditory Message in order to give the learner time to actively attend to the speaker. Use prompts similar to “Listen,” or “Wait, stop and listen,” to help the student prepare to process what will be presented auditorily.
Setting Expectations
Encourage students to repeat recast auditory messages to reinforce proper use of language as well as to provide the student with another opportunity to auditorily process the message. The student can be prompted to repeat the message (e.g., “Okay, it’s your turn.” or “Can you repeat what you heard?”).
Reaffirming Student Messages
Reaffirm what a student says when Recasting An Auditory Message to maintain the flow of a conversation and also provide the student with the correct form of the sentence in an expanded version of their utterance. For example, if a student says, “I has dog,” the teacher responds, “You’re right! You do have a dog.”
Building Message Recasting Into Everyday Activities
Build message recasting into everyday activities especially when hearing student phrases that are limited in information or grammatically incorrect. Collaborate with classroom staff (e.g., teaching assistants, educational aides) to review recasting goals and objectives for individual student needs.

Examples

Building Grammar Skills
While collaborating with the education team that supports a first grade student that wears hearing aids, it is decided that the student needs to work on building grammatically correct sentences. That day, while the class is preparing cookies for an afternoon holiday party, the teacher hears the student say, “Joaquin mixes!” To support the skill that the student is working on, the teacher Recasts the Auditory Message using a listening prompt to grab the learner’s attention (e.g., “Wait and listen...I am mixing the dough!”). After, the student is signaled to repeat the message (e.g., “I am mixing the dough!”) to ensure the message was accurately received.
Expanding Basic Language Skills
A student that previously communicated using sign language has begun speaking using one to two word utterances in a kindergarten classroom. The learner also continues to pair pointing gestures with verbal utterances in order to demonstrate thoughts. To support the student in expanding basic language skills, the teacher decides to recast auditory messages presented by the student (e.g., when the student, Angie, points to her art project, the teacher recasts the message, “Look at my work Mr. Lucero!). The student is asked to try repeating the recast statement (e.g., “Look Mr. Lucero!”), and is then prompted to try the entire recast message once more.

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