Strategy

Auditory Feedback Loop

Supporting Auditory Feedback Loop, Auditory Feedback

UDL 3.3

Auditory Feedback Loop is the process in which after a message or question is presented to a student with hearing loss, the student uses a three-part cycle that includes producing a response, processing this verbal response for mispronunciations, and correcting speech and language productions if necessary (e.g., Say it, Process it, Modify it). Similar to how someone that has a cold may not be able to hear their own production of words clearly (e.g., “my mom” sounds like “by bob”) or has difficulty gauging volume control due to congestion, students with hearing loss require direct training in order to listen and process verbal productions. Supporting an Auditory Feedback Loop includes repeating the student’s productions to bring attention to words that were mispronounced. A cue can be provided with repetition of the incorrect production to allow the student to correct the message (e.g., “I heard you say, “I wim in the water.”). Students subsequently learn how to correct errors independently through repetition of this process.

Implementation Tips

Pre-Planning
Pre-plan for supporting Auditory Feedback Loops by reviewing speech and language developmental milestones in order to create helpful expectations for a student with hearing loss. To view a sample of these milestones, click [[ http://www.ican.org.uk/~/media/Ican2/Book%20Shop/Downloads/stages%20of%20speech%20and%20language%20development%20chart001%20pdf.ashx | here ]].
Checking For Access To Sound
Check to make sure a student with hearing loss has auditory access to sounds before asking the student to self-produce messages clearly. Sit next to, but slightly behind the student (e.g., removing the ability to lip read) and ask the student to repeat simple two syllable word (e.g., baseball, rainbow, toothbrush, cowboy).
Introducing An Auditory Feedback Loop
Introduce the three-part cycle of this strategy using a visual image, similar to this [[ https://auditoryverbaltherapy.files.wordpress.com/2015/06/afl.png | example ]], to help a student with hearing loss understand the necessary steps for achievement. After, begin supporting Auditory Feedback Loops by repeating or reinforcing student utterances during direct interactions.

Sample Interactions:
--Repetition with no added reinforcement
S: “I ate my snack.”
T: “I’m glad you ate your snack.”

--Repetition with added reinforcement
S: “I eated my snack already.”
T: “Did you say you eated your snack already?”
S: “I meant I ate my snack.”
Collaborating With Related Service Providers
Collaborate with related service providers (e.g., Speech Therapist, Deaf/Hard of Hearing Specialist) if a student with hearing loss receives mandated Individualized Education Program (IEP) accommodations. More intensive and individualized support can be provided for the proper production of speech sounds.
Deepening Understanding
Deepen understanding by providing a supportive response when student answers reflect misunderstanding of a language concept, such as plurals, or mispronunciations (e.g., “I heard you say, ‘The girl go to the store, but I see three girls in the picture. Is that what you meant?” / “You want a tookie [[cookie]]?”).
Supporting Information Processing
Support a student’s ability to process auditory information received before an Auditory Feedback Loop is used by pausing and gaining the student’s attention before presenting the message/question. For example, pause an activity and provide a prompt such as, “Stop and listen,” to ensure engagement.
Supporting Auditory Feedback Loop Into Daily Routines
Support Auditory Feedback Loops as often as possible, especially when working 1:1 or in small groups with a student with hearing loss to help the student internalize the process. When repeating a student response, first see if the student can independently correct it, then model the correct response if needed.

Examples

Modifying Student Messages
During morning meeting while students are sharing their weekend experiences, a student with hearing loss states, “I eated the most delicious pizza on Saturday!” To support the student’s use of Auditory Feedback Loop, the teacher uses a reinforcement statement to help the student consider the necessary correction (e.g, “I heard you say, I eated the most delicious pizza on Saturday.”). The student takes a moment to reevaluate the original verbal production, and then says, “Oops, I meant I ate pizza,” before continuing to describe the weekend’s events. Later that day while sharing the same experience with a student from another class, the student makes the same miscue, but independently listens, processes, and modifies the message by correctly producing the word “ate.”
Modeling Speech Sounds
A Kindergarten teacher notices that a student, Ruby, continually has difficulty pronouncing the initial /r/ sound in her name (e.g., pronounces “Wuby” instead of “Ruby”). The teacher consults with the school’s Speech and Language Pathologist (SLP), and a plan is created to help the student work on the sound in the classroom. Each time the student substitutes the /w/ sound for the /s/ sound, the teacher supports the student’s Auditory Feedback Loop by modeling the appropriate /r/ sound to ensure that the student hears and processes the correct production, and then waits for the student to correct the original mispronunciation. Overtime, the student learns to independently modify this error.

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