Refer to Textual Evidence

By (date), after reading a nonfiction text and given a verbal claim about that text, (name) will support the claim by referring to (2) details in writing from the text for (4 out of 5) nonfiction texts. **Example Non-Fiction Text**
Polar Bear Personalities **Example Claim**
... Polar Bears have distinct character traits and behaviors to match. **Sample Student Response (only has to provide 2)**
- Kaluk is friendly and shares toys.
- Takik is calm and naps in the leaves.
- Shinuk is lively and rolls around in the dirt.
  • By (date), after reading a nonfiction text and given a verbal claim about the text and guiding questions, (name) will support the claim by referring to (2) details in writing from the text for (4 out of 5) nonfiction texts. **Example Non-Fiction Text**
    Polar Bear Personalities **Guiding Questions**
    - How does Kaluk behave at the zoo?
    - How does Takik behave at the zoo?
    - How does Shinuk behave at the zoo? **Example Claim**
    Polar Bears have distinct character traits and behaviors to match. **Sample Student Response (only has to provide 2)**
    - Kaluk is friendly and shares toys.
    - Takik is calm and naps in the leaves.
    - Shinuk is lively and rolls around in the dirt.
  • By (date), after reading a nonfiction text and given a verbal claim about the text, (name) will support the claim by matching details and evidence in (4 out of 5) nonfiction texts. **Example Non-Fiction Text**
    Polar Bear Personalities **Example Claim**
    Polar Bears have distinct character traits and behaviors to match. **Example Student Response**
    - Detail: Kaluk is friendly > Evidence: He likes to interact with visitors.
    - Detail: Takik is calm > Evidence: She lives to take naps.
    - Detail: Shinuk is playful > Evidence: She loves to roll in the dirt.
  • By (date), after an adapted nonfiction text is read aloud and a verbal claim about the text is given, (name) will support the claim by choosing one (1) detail from a list of four details from the text in (4 out of 5) nonfiction texts. **Example Non-Fiction Text**
    Polar Bear Personalities - adapted **Example Claim**
    Polar Bears have distinct character traits and behaviors to match. **Sample Student Response**
    - The San Diego Zoo has 3 polar bears who all have different personalities.
    - Kaluk and Takik are siblings that were born in the wild of Alaska in 2001.
    - **Kaluk is friendly and likes to throw around his toys and play in the pool.**
    - Shinuk, who is brownish, was born in Canada.

UDL-Aligned Strategies About UDL

  • Optimize relevance, value, and authenticity
    Make the nonfiction topic more relevant to students by relating it to a personal-interest. For example, if students are reading a nonfiction text about polar bears, teachers can ask students to tell them about their favorite animals or if they've been to the zoo. Through casual, relevant conversation, the teacher could eventually direct the conversation to polar bears, and ask students what they know about this topic. Depending on the student's prior knowledge, teachers can make connections between animals they like and the animals in the text.
  • UDL II 5.3 Build fluencies with graduated levels of support for practice and performance
    Give students a list of details from the text in a multiple choice format. The choices can be text or images. This allows the student the same opportunity to demonstrate mastery of referring to evidence to support a claim but eliminates the barrier of separating irrelevant details from important ones. If the choices are provided as images, this further eliminates the barrier of comprehension to focus on the skill of supporting a claim.
  • UDL II 5.1 Use multiple media for communication
    Use an modified text that is read aloud by focusing on the part(s) that are most relevant to the given claim. This helps students focus on the skill of supporting the claim with textual evidence by removing distracting or irrelevant information.
  • UDL I 3.3 Guide information processing, visualization, and manipulation
    Use guiding questions to provide a starting point or roadmap that directs a student's critical thinking while keeping the student responsible for the cognitive task. A few guiding questions (e.g. What are some details that prove . . . Where can you find those details in the text?) can support students through processing information that was too challenging to do on their own. Even students reading on grade may find it challenging to support a claim by quoting the text. They may comprehend the main idea of the text and understand the given claim, but be unsure how or where to start in the process of identifying details. Teachers can guide them to the evidence through a few, simple questions.
  • UDL I 3.4 Maximize transfer and generalization
    Use a graphic organizer to arrange details that focus on the given claim. The graphic organizer can be as simple as a table with the first column representing the main ideas (e.g. The names of the animals described), the next column can be a description of the main ideas, and the third column can be evidence from the text. Teachers can fill in some or most of the table to further support students.

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Standards

RI.4.1 Key Ideas and Details
RI.4.1 Key Ideas and Details
Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

Standard Staircase

Ask Questions About a Text

By (date), after a read aloud of a nonfiction text, when verbally prompted by the teacher (e.g. Teacher says “Tell us about something important that we learned from the text.”), (name) will verbally respond with (1) question or statement about the text (e.g. Student asks “I was wondering how bears know when to wake up from hibernation?”) during (3 out of 3) class discussions.

Identify Person from Familiar Text

By (date), after reading a nonfiction text with the teacher, listening to the teacher model (1) question and answer (e.g. “Who is the postal carrier? The postal carrier is the person who delivers mail to people’s homes.”), and when asked (1) question about a person, object, or place from the text, (name) will verbally answer the question, for (4 of 5) nonfiction reading sessions.

Use Characteristics to Identify Objects

By (date), given (3) objects that are verbally labeled by the teacher and asked to choose which object has a specific physical or performance characteristic, (name) will select the object, for (4 out of 5) object identification activities.

Answer Questions about Details in a Text

By (date), after reading a nonfiction text, when verbally prompted by the teacher (e.g. Teacher says “Tell about something important that you learned from the text.”), (name) will verbally respond with (1) question or statement about the text (e.g. Student asks “I was wondering how bears know when to wake up from hibernation?”) during (3 out of 3) text discussions.

Identify Person from Familiar Text

By (date), after reading a nonfiction text with the teacher, listening to the teacher model (1) question and answer (e.g. “Who is the postal carrier? The postal carrier is the person who delivers mail to people’s homes.”), and when asked (1) question about a person, object, or place from the text, (name) will verbally answer the question, for (4 of 5) nonfiction reading sessions.

Use Characteristics to Identify Objects

By (date), given (3) objects that are verbally labeled by the teacher and asked to choose which object has a specific physical or performance characteristic, (name) will select the object, for (4 out of 5) object identification activities.

Ask/Answer Questions About a Text

By (date), after reading a nonfiction text, when given a set of questions to answer for a small-group text discussion, (name) will verbally or in written form ask or answer at least (3) questions (e.g. Who, What, When, Why, Where, or How) about text details, during (3 of 3) reading sessions.

Identify Person from Familiar Text

By (date), after reading a nonfiction text with the teacher, listening to the teacher model (1) question and answer (e.g. “Who is the postal carrier? The postal carrier is the person who delivers mail to people’s homes.”), and when asked (1) question about a person, object, or place from the text, (name) will verbally answer the question, for (4 of 5) nonfiction reading sessions.

Use Characteristics to Identify Objects

By (date), given (3) objects that are verbally labeled by the teacher and asked to choose which object has a specific physical or performance characteristic, (name) will select the object, for (4 out of 5) object identification activities.

Refer to Textual Evidence

By (date), after reading a nonfiction text and asked a verbal question about what the text says explicitly, (name) will answer the question in writing by referring to (1) detail from the text in (4 out of 5) nonfiction texts.

Use Nonfiction Texts to Ask Questions

By (date) after reading a grade level nonfiction text (e.g. Titanic), (name) will identify (1) explicit key detail (e.g. People thought the Titanic was “unsinkable”) and (1) implicit key detail (e.g. Captain Smith did not expect the Titanic to have any difficulty sailing) and he/she will use these details to develop (2) questions; (1) factual question with a text reference (e.g. On what page did the text explain the reasons why the Titanic was called “unsinkable?”) and (1) inferential question with a text reference (e.g. “What clues in the text led you to believe Captain Smith was not prepared for an emergency?) in (4 out of 5) writing exercises.

Use Questions to Show Comprehension

By (date), after reading a grade level informational text and given a 2-column table labeled “Questions” and “Answers from Text,” (name) will develop (5) questions in the “Questions” column that demonstrate comprehension (e.g. “Which form of matter has a definite shape?”). (Name) will then trade tables with a peer, and use the text to answer (5) questions developed by the peer in the "Answers from Text" column. (Name) will demonstrate mastery in (4 out 5) trials as measured by questions and responses.

Answer Questions Based on a Text

By (date), immediately after reading a instructional-level text (e.g. graphic novel) of his/her choice, (name) will verbally answer at least (3) WH- questions (e.g. who, what, when, where), provided with the text, with no more than (1) sentence frame per question (e.g. Teacher says "The girl went to the..."), in (4 of 5) reading opportunities.

Understands Stories Read in Class

By (date), after a reader's theater of a story in class, (name) will demonstrate understanding of the story by role playing or acting out the answer for (2) comprehension questions (e.g. "What happens to the main character at the beginning of the story?") for (2 out of 3) stories.

Use Text Details to Make Inferences

By (date), when given a (3-4) paragraph of grade level informational passage (e.g. a science article from National Geographic Kids, (student) will infer the main purpose of the passage, write (2-3) sentences about the main purpose, and underline (3-4) examples and details from text that were used to infer the main purpose, for (2 out of 3) passages for (4 out of 4) inference identifying exercises.

Use Textual Evidence to Support Inferences and Conclusions

By (date), after reading a grade-level, nonfiction text (e.g. a biography of Abraham Lincoln), when given an inference-analysis prompt (e.g. "Use two details from the text to explain how Abraham Lincoln was an honest man."), (name) will write a (3-5) sentence paragraph stating (2) details from the text and explaining how the details support his/her understanding of the inference in (5 out of 5) inference-analysis opportunities.

Refer to Textual Evidence

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By (date), after reading a nonfiction text and given a verbal claim about that text, (name) will support the claim by referring to (2) details in writing from the text for (4 out of 5) nonfiction texts.

Answer Questions Based on a Text

By (date), immediately after reading a instructional-level text (e.g. graphic novel) of his/her choice, (name) will verbally answer at least (3) WH- questions (e.g. who, what, when, where), provided with the text, with no more than (1) sentence frame per question (e.g. Teacher says "The girl went to the..."), in (4 of 5) reading opportunities.

Understands Stories Read in Class

By (date), after a reader's theater of a story in class, (name) will demonstrate understanding of the story by role playing or acting out the answer for (2) comprehension questions (e.g. "What happens to the main character at the beginning of the story?") for (2 out of 3) stories.

Quote Textual Evidence

By (date), after reading a nonfiction text and given a verbal claim about the text, (name) will support the claim by writing (2) quoted details from the text for (4 out of 5) nonfiction texts.

Use Quotes From Text to Support Thinking

By (date), after reading a grade-level informational text and given a verbal and visual writing prompt (e.g. Teacher says and writes on board "In approximately 200 words, use two quotes to support an explanation of the author’s purpose"), (name) will use at least (2) direct quotes from the text to support both (1) denotative claim and (1) inferential claim about the text when writing a (2)-paragraph response according to a teacher-created rubric, for (3 of 3) essay responses.

Answer Questions Based on a Text

By (date), immediately after reading a instructional-level text (e.g. graphic novel) of his/her choice, (name) will verbally answer at least (3) WH- questions (e.g. who, what, when, where), provided with the text, with no more than (1) sentence frame per question (e.g. Teacher says "The girl went to the..."), in (4 of 5) reading opportunities.

Understands Stories Read in Class

By (date), after a reader's theater of a story in class, (name) will demonstrate understanding of the story by role playing or acting out the answer for (2) comprehension questions (e.g. "What happens to the main character at the beginning of the story?") for (2 out of 3) stories.

Cite Evidence to Support Analysis

After reading text written at grade level, (name) will support a central idea or key conclusion of the text by using (2 or more) pieces of textual evidence (one explicit, and one implicit) to support their analysis for (4 out of 5) texts.

Identify Evidence for a Text's Claim

By (date), after listening to a read aloud of a familiar text, when given a verbal claim about the text (e.g. Teacher says "How do you know that character A is upset with character B?"), (name) will identify at least (2) pieces of evidence from the text by pointing to a photo answer choice (e.g. photos portraying different scenes in the story) from a field of (4) picture answer choices within (10) seconds of the verbal prompt, for (4 out of 5) story comprehension activities.

Cite Evidence to Support Analysis

After reading a text written at grade level, (name) will support a central idea or key conclusion of the text by using (4 or more) pieces of textual evidence (one explicit, and one implicit) to support their analysis for (4 out of 5) texts.

Identify Evidence for a Text's Claim

By (date), after listening to a read aloud of a familiar text, when given a verbal claim about the text (e.g. Teacher says "How do you know that character A is upset with character B?"), (name) will identify at least (2) pieces of evidence from the text by pointing to a photo answer choice (e.g. photos portraying different scenes in the story) from a field of (4) picture answer choices within (10) seconds of the verbal prompt, for (4 out of 5) story comprehension activities.

Cite Strongest Evidence to Support Analysis

By (date), after reading a grade-level informational text, (name) will analyze the text by writing a (5)-sentence paragraph that states the central idea or key conclusion of the text and uses at least (3) pieces of strongest textual evidence (e.g., two explicit, and one implicit) to support their analysis for (4 out of 5) central idea and details activities.

Identify Evidence for a Text's Claim

By (date), after listening to a read aloud of a familiar text, when given a verbal claim about the text (e.g. Teacher says "How do you know that character A is upset with character B?"), (name) will identify at least (2) pieces of evidence from the text by pointing to a photo answer choice (e.g. photos portraying different scenes in the story) from a field of (4) picture answer choices within (10) seconds of the verbal prompt, for (4 out of 5) story comprehension activities.

Support Claims by Citing Evidence

By (date), after reading a nonfiction text and given a written, multi-step prompt, (name) will respond in writing and include (3) pieces of evidence from the text that support claims for (4 out of 5) nonfiction texts.

Cite Evidence from Informational Texts

By (date), after reading a grade-level informational text, (name) will correctly respond to (3 out of 4) short-answer, analytical questions that require (him/her) to infer information from explicit information in the text (e.g. “In his 2005 commencement speech at Stanford University, what did Steve Jobs mean when he said that getting fired from Apple was "the best thing that could have ever happened" to him?) by writing (3-6) sentences, including (1-2) citations of textual evidence from which each inference is logically drawn to support (his/her) answer, for each question for 3 out of 4 texts.

Use Evidence to Answer a Question

By (date), when asked a who, what, where or when question about a familiar informational text, (name) will choose the answer (e.g. by pointing, stating, using eye gaze) from (3) explicit textual details, for (3 out of 3) informational text analyses.

Cite Evidence to Analyze Informational Texts

By (date), after reading a grade-level informational text, (name) will write an analytical essay of (500) words (e.g. "After reading Amy Tan's 'Mother Tongue,' analyze the author's view on how a person's language skills shape his/her public perception.") that provides (5) citations from the text as logical justification for inferences made about the text and (1) reference to and commentary about a matter that remains uncertain for (3 out of 4) texts.

Cite Textual Evidence to Support Analysis

By (date), after reading a nonfiction text and given a written, multi-step prompt, (name) will write a short response that includes (3) pieces of evidence from the text for (4 out of 5) nonfiction texts.

Use Evidence to Answer a Question

By (date), when asked a who, what, where or when question about a familiar informational text, (name) will choose the answer (e.g. by pointing, stating, using eye gaze) from (3) explicit textual details, for (3 out of 3) informational text analyses.

Referenced Strategies

  • Adapted Text

    Adapted text is any text that has been changed from its original print format. This includes a variety of strategies to make traditional tex...

  • Multiple Choice

    Before students are comfortable generating a free-form response, they can demonstrate their knowledge by selecting the correct answer(s) fro...

  • Personal-Interest Problems

    Personal-interest problems can be used to motivate students and provide concrete examples of mathematical concepts. Word problems that appea...

  • Visual Aids

    Visual aids involve adding pictures and images to support learning. In math, this includes adding pictures to make word problems more concre...

  • Graphic Organizers

    Graphic Organizers are visual representations of text. They can be used to organize facts and/or specific features of fiction or non-fiction...

  • Guiding Questions

    Guiding questions are questions provided to students, either in writing or spoken verbally, while they are working on a task. Asking guiding...

  • Read Aloud

    Read Aloud refers to presenting written text in an auditory format. The teacher can read aloud to the class or students can take turns readi...

  • Modified Text

    Modified Texts are grade level reading passages that have been simplified both in language, length, and complexity to meet the instructional...