Refer to Textual Evidence

By (date), after reading a nonfiction text and asked a verbal question about what the text says explicitly, (name) will answer the question in writing by referring to (1) detail from the text in (4 out of 5) nonfiction texts.... **Example Non-Fiction Text**
Adorable Dormice **Example Question**
Where does the text tell us that dormice are disappearing? **Sample Student Response**
The text says that when people build houses and business, it destroys the forest where the dormice live.
  • By (date), after reading a nonfiction text with guiding questions and asked verbally what the text says explicitly, (name) will answer the question in writing by referring to one (1) detail from the text in (4 out of 5) nonfiction texts. **Example Non-Fiction Text**
    Adorable Dormice **Example Guiding Questions**
    Why is there a section titled "Threats to Survival?"
    What did you learn in that paragraph? **Example Question**
    Where does the text tell us that dormice are disappearing? **Example Student Response**
    The text says that when people build houses and business, it destroys the forest where the dormice live.
  • By (date), after reading a nonfiction text aloud and asked verbally about what the text says explicitly, (name) will answer the question by choosing one (1) detail from a list of 4 choices in (4 out of 5) nonfiction texts. **Example Non-Fiction Text**
    Adorable Dormice **Example Question**
    Where does the text tell us that dormice are disappearing? **Example Student Response**
    The text says that when people build houses and business, it destroys the forest where the dormice live.
  • By (date), after an adapted nonfiction text is read aloud, visual aids are shared, and a claim is given verbally about what the text says explicitly, (name) will support the claim by highlighting one (1) detail from a given paragraph in (4 out of 5) nonfiction texts. **Example Non-Fiction Text**
    Adorable Dormice **Example Question**
    Where does the text tell us that dormice are disappearing? **Sample Student Response**
    Of course, some dormice don't live that long. That's because they make tasty little meals for owls and other predators. But predators aren't their biggest threat. **Many different kinds of dormice are losing their forest homes as people build more houses and businesses. In the last 30 years, garden dormice have vanished from half of the places they used to live.** That's why people are working to save as many dormice as they can.

UDL-Aligned Strategies About UDL

  • Optimize relevance, value, and authenticity
    Make the nonfiction topic more relevant to students by relating it to a personal-interest. For example, if students were reading a nonfiction text about mice, teachers can ask students to tell them about their favorite animals or if they've seen mice at the pet store. Through casual, relevant conversation, the teacher could eventually direct the conversation to different types of mice, and ask students what they know about this topic. Depending on the student's prior knowledge, teachers can make connections between animals they like and the animals in the text.
  • UDL II 5.3 Build fluencies with graduated levels of support for practice and performance
    Give students a list of details from the text in a multiple choice format. The student can choose one or two details to support a given claim. The multiple choice format can be presented in the form of text or images. This allows the student the same opportunity to demonstrate mastery of referring to evidence to support a claim but eliminates the barrier of separating irrelevant details from important details.
  • UDL II 5.1 Use multiple media for communication
    Use an adapted and read it aloud. Focus on the part(s) of the text that are most relevant to the given claim. This helps students focus on the skill of supporting the claim with textual evidence by removing distracting or irrelevant information.
  • UDL I 3.3 Guide information processing, visualization, and manipulation
    Use guiding questions to provide a starting point or roadmap that directs a student's critical thinking while keeping the student responsible for the cognitive task. A few guiding questions (e.g. What are some details that prove . . . Where can you find those details in the text?) can support students through processing information that was too challenging to do on their own. Even students reading on grade may find it challenging to support a claim by quoting the text. They may comprehend the main idea of the text and understand the given claim, but be unsure how or where to start in the process of identifying supporting details. Guide them to the evidence through a few, simple questions.
  • UDL I 2.5 Illustrate through multiple media
    Show students images or videos about the topic. This will both improve engagement and provide context about the nonfiction topic. When nonfiction passages reference specific details about an unfamiliar topic, all students will benefit from learning about the topic through visual aids before reading or having the passage read aloud. Teachers can show or print visual aids by searching google images for the topic of the text.

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Standards

RI.3.1 Key Ideas and Details
RI.3.1 Key Ideas and Details
Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.

Standard Staircase

Ask Questions About a Text

By (date), after a read aloud of a nonfiction text, when verbally prompted by the teacher (e.g. Teacher says “Tell us about something important that we learned from the text.”), (name) will verbally respond with (1) question or statement about the text (e.g. Student asks “I was wondering how bears know when to wake up from hibernation?”) during (3 out of 3) class discussions.

Identify Person from Familiar Text

By (date), after reading a nonfiction text with the teacher, listening to the teacher model (1) question and answer (e.g. “Who is the postal carrier? The postal carrier is the person who delivers mail to people’s homes.”), and when asked (1) question about a person, object, or place from the text, (name) will verbally answer the question, for (4 of 5) nonfiction reading sessions.

Use Characteristics to Identify Objects

By (date), given (3) objects that are verbally labeled by the teacher and asked to choose which object has a specific physical or performance characteristic, (name) will select the object, for (4 out of 5) object identification activities.

Answer Questions about Details in a Text

By (date), after reading a nonfiction text, when verbally prompted by the teacher (e.g. Teacher says “Tell about something important that you learned from the text.”), (name) will verbally respond with (1) question or statement about the text (e.g. Student asks “I was wondering how bears know when to wake up from hibernation?”) during (3 out of 3) text discussions.

Identify Person from Familiar Text

By (date), after reading a nonfiction text with the teacher, listening to the teacher model (1) question and answer (e.g. “Who is the postal carrier? The postal carrier is the person who delivers mail to people’s homes.”), and when asked (1) question about a person, object, or place from the text, (name) will verbally answer the question, for (4 of 5) nonfiction reading sessions.

Use Characteristics to Identify Objects

By (date), given (3) objects that are verbally labeled by the teacher and asked to choose which object has a specific physical or performance characteristic, (name) will select the object, for (4 out of 5) object identification activities.

Ask/Answer Questions About a Text

By (date), after reading a nonfiction text, when given a set of questions to answer for a small-group text discussion, (name) will verbally or in written form ask or answer at least (3) questions (e.g. Who, What, When, Why, Where, or How) about text details, during (3 of 3) reading sessions.

Identify Person from Familiar Text

By (date), after reading a nonfiction text with the teacher, listening to the teacher model (1) question and answer (e.g. “Who is the postal carrier? The postal carrier is the person who delivers mail to people’s homes.”), and when asked (1) question about a person, object, or place from the text, (name) will verbally answer the question, for (4 of 5) nonfiction reading sessions.

Use Characteristics to Identify Objects

By (date), given (3) objects that are verbally labeled by the teacher and asked to choose which object has a specific physical or performance characteristic, (name) will select the object, for (4 out of 5) object identification activities.

Refer to Textual Evidence

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By (date), after reading a nonfiction text and asked a verbal question about what the text says explicitly, (name) will answer the question in writing by referring to (1) detail from the text in (4 out of 5) nonfiction texts.

Use Nonfiction Texts to Ask Questions

By (date) after reading a grade level nonfiction text (e.g. Titanic), (name) will identify (1) explicit key detail (e.g. People thought the Titanic was “unsinkable”) and (1) implicit key detail (e.g. Captain Smith did not expect the Titanic to have any difficulty sailing) and he/she will use these details to develop (2) questions; (1) factual question with a text reference (e.g. On what page did the text explain the reasons why the Titanic was called “unsinkable?”) and (1) inferential question with a text reference (e.g. “What clues in the text led you to believe Captain Smith was not prepared for an emergency?) in (4 out of 5) writing exercises.

Use Questions to Show Comprehension

By (date), after reading a grade level informational text and given a 2-column table labeled “Questions” and “Answers from Text,” (name) will develop (5) questions in the “Questions” column that demonstrate comprehension (e.g. “Which form of matter has a definite shape?”). (Name) will then trade tables with a peer, and use the text to answer (5) questions developed by the peer in the "Answers from Text" column. (Name) will demonstrate mastery in (4 out 5) trials as measured by questions and responses.

Answer Questions Based on a Text

By (date), immediately after reading a instructional-level text (e.g. graphic novel) of his/her choice, (name) will verbally answer at least (3) WH- questions (e.g. who, what, when, where), provided with the text, with no more than (1) sentence frame per question (e.g. Teacher says "The girl went to the..."), in (4 of 5) reading opportunities.

Understands Stories Read in Class

By (date), after a reader's theater of a story in class, (name) will demonstrate understanding of the story by role playing or acting out the answer for (2) comprehension questions (e.g. "What happens to the main character at the beginning of the story?") for (2 out of 3) stories.

Use Text Details to Make Inferences

By (date), when given a (3-4) paragraph of grade level informational passage (e.g. a science article from National Geographic Kids, (student) will infer the main purpose of the passage, write (2-3) sentences about the main purpose, and underline (3-4) examples and details from text that were used to infer the main purpose, for (2 out of 3) passages for (4 out of 4) inference identifying exercises.

Use Textual Evidence to Support Inferences and Conclusions

By (date), after reading a grade-level, nonfiction text (e.g. a biography of Abraham Lincoln), when given an inference-analysis prompt (e.g. "Use two details from the text to explain how Abraham Lincoln was an honest man."), (name) will write a (3-5) sentence paragraph stating (2) details from the text and explaining how the details support his/her understanding of the inference in (5 out of 5) inference-analysis opportunities.

Refer to Textual Evidence

By (date), after reading a nonfiction text and given a verbal claim about that text, (name) will support the claim by referring to (2) details in writing from the text for (4 out of 5) nonfiction texts.

Answer Questions Based on a Text

By (date), immediately after reading a instructional-level text (e.g. graphic novel) of his/her choice, (name) will verbally answer at least (3) WH- questions (e.g. who, what, when, where), provided with the text, with no more than (1) sentence frame per question (e.g. Teacher says "The girl went to the..."), in (4 of 5) reading opportunities.

Understands Stories Read in Class

By (date), after a reader's theater of a story in class, (name) will demonstrate understanding of the story by role playing or acting out the answer for (2) comprehension questions (e.g. "What happens to the main character at the beginning of the story?") for (2 out of 3) stories.

Quote Textual Evidence

By (date), after reading a nonfiction text and given a verbal claim about the text, (name) will support the claim by writing (2) quoted details from the text for (4 out of 5) nonfiction texts.

Use Quotes From Text to Support Thinking

By (date), after reading a grade-level informational text and given a verbal and visual writing prompt (e.g. Teacher says and writes on board "In approximately 200 words, use two quotes to support an explanation of the author’s purpose"), (name) will use at least (2) direct quotes from the text to support both (1) denotative claim and (1) inferential claim about the text when writing a (2)-paragraph response according to a teacher-created rubric, for (3 of 3) essay responses.

Answer Questions Based on a Text

By (date), immediately after reading a instructional-level text (e.g. graphic novel) of his/her choice, (name) will verbally answer at least (3) WH- questions (e.g. who, what, when, where), provided with the text, with no more than (1) sentence frame per question (e.g. Teacher says "The girl went to the..."), in (4 of 5) reading opportunities.

Understands Stories Read in Class

By (date), after a reader's theater of a story in class, (name) will demonstrate understanding of the story by role playing or acting out the answer for (2) comprehension questions (e.g. "What happens to the main character at the beginning of the story?") for (2 out of 3) stories.

Cite Evidence to Support Analysis

After reading text written at grade level, (name) will support a central idea or key conclusion of the text by using (2 or more) pieces of textual evidence (one explicit, and one implicit) to support their analysis for (4 out of 5) texts.

Identify Evidence for a Text's Claim

By (date), after listening to a read aloud of a familiar text, when given a verbal claim about the text (e.g. Teacher says "How do you know that character A is upset with character B?"), (name) will identify at least (2) pieces of evidence from the text by pointing to a photo answer choice (e.g. photos portraying different scenes in the story) from a field of (4) picture answer choices within (10) seconds of the verbal prompt, for (4 out of 5) story comprehension activities.

Cite Evidence to Support Analysis

After reading a text written at grade level, (name) will support a central idea or key conclusion of the text by using (4 or more) pieces of textual evidence (one explicit, and one implicit) to support their analysis for (4 out of 5) texts.

Identify Evidence for a Text's Claim

By (date), after listening to a read aloud of a familiar text, when given a verbal claim about the text (e.g. Teacher says "How do you know that character A is upset with character B?"), (name) will identify at least (2) pieces of evidence from the text by pointing to a photo answer choice (e.g. photos portraying different scenes in the story) from a field of (4) picture answer choices within (10) seconds of the verbal prompt, for (4 out of 5) story comprehension activities.

Cite Strongest Evidence to Support Analysis

By (date), after reading a grade-level informational text, (name) will analyze the text by writing a (5)-sentence paragraph that states the central idea or key conclusion of the text and uses at least (3) pieces of strongest textual evidence (e.g., two explicit, and one implicit) to support their analysis for (4 out of 5) central idea and details activities.

Identify Evidence for a Text's Claim

By (date), after listening to a read aloud of a familiar text, when given a verbal claim about the text (e.g. Teacher says "How do you know that character A is upset with character B?"), (name) will identify at least (2) pieces of evidence from the text by pointing to a photo answer choice (e.g. photos portraying different scenes in the story) from a field of (4) picture answer choices within (10) seconds of the verbal prompt, for (4 out of 5) story comprehension activities.

Support Claims by Citing Evidence

By (date), after reading a nonfiction text and given a written, multi-step prompt, (name) will respond in writing and include (3) pieces of evidence from the text that support claims for (4 out of 5) nonfiction texts.

Cite Evidence from Informational Texts

By (date), after reading a grade-level informational text, (name) will correctly respond to (3 out of 4) short-answer, analytical questions that require (him/her) to infer information from explicit information in the text (e.g. “In his 2005 commencement speech at Stanford University, what did Steve Jobs mean when he said that getting fired from Apple was "the best thing that could have ever happened" to him?) by writing (3-6) sentences, including (1-2) citations of textual evidence from which each inference is logically drawn to support (his/her) answer, for each question for 3 out of 4 texts.

Use Evidence to Answer a Question

By (date), when asked a who, what, where or when question about a familiar informational text, (name) will choose the answer (e.g. by pointing, stating, using eye gaze) from (3) explicit textual details, for (3 out of 3) informational text analyses.

Cite Evidence to Analyze Informational Texts

By (date), after reading a grade-level informational text, (name) will write an analytical essay of (500) words (e.g. "After reading Amy Tan's 'Mother Tongue,' analyze the author's view on how a person's language skills shape his/her public perception.") that provides (5) citations from the text as logical justification for inferences made about the text and (1) reference to and commentary about a matter that remains uncertain for (3 out of 4) texts.

Cite Textual Evidence to Support Analysis

By (date), after reading a nonfiction text and given a written, multi-step prompt, (name) will write a short response that includes (3) pieces of evidence from the text for (4 out of 5) nonfiction texts.

Use Evidence to Answer a Question

By (date), when asked a who, what, where or when question about a familiar informational text, (name) will choose the answer (e.g. by pointing, stating, using eye gaze) from (3) explicit textual details, for (3 out of 3) informational text analyses.

Referenced Strategies

  • Highlighting

    Highlighting could include highlighting key words/phrases, key points or arguments or text structures such as headings. This adaptation can ...

  • Modified Assignment

    Teachers may provide modified assignments when grade-level work is inappropriate for students. Modified assignments assess the same skill(s)...

  • Adapted Text

    Adapted text is any text that has been changed from its original print format. This includes a variety of strategies to make traditional tex...

  • Multiple Choice

    Before students are comfortable generating a free-form response, they can demonstrate their knowledge by selecting the correct answer(s) fro...

  • Personal-Interest Problems

    Personal-interest problems can be used to motivate students and provide concrete examples of mathematical concepts. Word problems that appea...

  • Visual Aids

    Visual aids involve adding pictures and images to support learning. In math, this includes adding pictures to make word problems more concre...

  • Guiding Questions

    Guiding questions are questions provided to students, either in writing or spoken verbally, while they are working on a task. Asking guiding...

  • Read Aloud

    Read Aloud refers to presenting written text in an auditory format. The teacher can read aloud to the class or students can take turns readi...