Select Content-Specific Vocabulary

By (date), when given a previously-taught topic (e.g. weather, animal behaviors, money) and a bank of (5) related and unrelated words, (name) will circle the words related to the topic,... for (3 out of 3) content-specific vocabulary exercises. Example topic: money Example word bank: buy, large, coin, rough, bag Example student response: The student selects the words “buy” and “coin.”
  • By (date), when given a previously-taught, high-interest topic (e.g. athletics, computers, reptiles) and a bank of (5) related and unrelated words, (name) will work with a peer to circle the words related to the topic, for (3 out of 3) content-specific vocabulary exercises.
  • By (date), when given a previously-taught topic (e.g. weather, animal behaviors, money) and (5) adapted (e.g. enlarged, braille, tactile) related and unrelated word cards, (name) will receive over-hand guidance to select the word cards related to the topic, for (3 out of 3) content-specific vocabulary exercises.
  • By (date), when given a previously-taught topic (e.g. weather, animal behaviors, money) and a bank of (5) related and unrelated words, (name) will work with a peer to circle the words related to the topic, for (3 out of 3) content-specific vocabulary exercises.
  • By (date), when given a previously-taught topic (e.g. weather, animal behaviors, money) and (3) enlarged related and unrelated word cards, (name) will select (e.g. using a head switch, purposeful gestures, eye gaze) the word cards related to the topic, for (3 out of 3) content-specific vocabulary exercises.
  • By (date), when given a previously-taught topic (e.g. weather, animal behaviors, money) and (3) illustrated, enlarged related and unrelated word cards, (name) will select (e.g. by pointing, using a communication device) the word cards related to the topic, for (3 out of 3) content-specific vocabulary exercises.

UDL-Aligned Strategies About UDL

  • Foster collaboration and communication
    Pairing students with a peer buddy is a great strategy to keep them engaged and on task; as they work together, students can learn from their partner's perspective. In this specific task, peer buddies can work cooperatively: one student can read the words aloud while the other student student circles the answers, for example, and then trade roles in the next round. Another option would be for one student to take on a leadership role, and gently guide his or her partner throughout the work process.
  • UDL II 5.1 Use multiple media for communication
    To support students who have difficulty deciphering written words, teachers may choose to provide multiple representations of each word included in a word bank or on a response card. For example, beneath the written word "rain," the teacher might draw simple, colorful raindrops. Beneath the written word "anger," the teacher might draw an "angry" face. Simple images such as these can help make the written word more concrete, particularly for students who have difficulty with expressive language.
  • UDL I 1.1 Offer ways of customizing the display of information
    Adapted text can be extremely beneficial for students who need visual support adaptations. Depending on the individual student's needs, the text can be enlarged or presented in a tactile format (or both). There are multiple ways teachers can create tactile text or illustrations: Make, Take & Teach has an example here.

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DLM Essential Elements

ELA-Literacy.W.7.2
Text Types and Purposes
EE.W.7.2 Write to share information supported by details. a. Introduce a topic and write to convey ideas and information about it including visual, tactual, or multimedia information as appropriate. b. Provide facts, details, or other information related to the topic. c. Not applicable d. Select domain-specific vocabulary to use in writing about the topic. e. Not applicable f. Not applicable
ELA-Literacy.W.8.2
Text Types and Purposes
EE.W.8.2 Write to share information supported by details. a. Introduce a topic clearly and write to convey ideas and information about it including visual, tactual, or multimedia information as appropriate. b. Write one or more facts or details related to the topic. c. Write complete thoughts as appropriate. d. Use domain specific vocabulary related to the topic. e. Not applicable f. Provide a closing.

NCSC Core Connectors

ELA-Literacy.8.WI.l1
Writing Standards
8.WI.l1 Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
ELA-Literacy.7.WI.l1
Writing Standards
7.WI.l1 Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.

Standards

W.7.2d Text Types and Purposes
W.7.2d Text Types and Purposes
Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
W.8.2d Text Types and Purposes
W.8.2d Text Types and Purposes
Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.

Standard Staircase

Identify the Parts of a Book

By date, when given a familiar book and a verbally prompt (i.e. Teacher says “Where is the Title?”) to identify parts of a book, (name) will correctly point to indicated part of a book (i.e. cover, title, page), with no more than (1) repeated question in (4 out of 5) guided-reading lessons.

Distinguish Text from Illustrations

By (date), after completing a shared reading of an illustrated familiar passage at the student’s independent reading level and given a verbal prompt (e.g. “Point to the words in this story.”, “Point to the pictures in this story.”), (name) will point to (1) piece of text and (1) illustration from the passage, in (4 of 5) narrative reading sessions.

Describe Oneself with a Feeling Word

By (date), after a read aloud of an instructional level story and (1) question by the teacher (e.g. “Sophie was really angry in this story. Can you think about this morning or yesterday and describe how you felt?”), (name) will speak (1) sentence, including (1) feeling word (e.g. happy, sad, angry), for (4 of 5) self-reflections.

Recognize and Track an Object by Name

By (date), after a preview of an object and it’s name from a picture walk of an instructional-level, informational text (e.g. tractor in a book about construction), shown (2) objects (one that represents the previewed object and one that is different), and when prompted by the teacher (“Point to the tractor that looks like the one from the book.”), (name) will point to the object, in (4 of 5) reading sessions.

Recognize a Character's Name from a Story

By (date), when verbally asked to make a selection between (2) familiar stories (e.g. “Let’s read the book about the dog, which book is that?”, “Can you get the book about David to read?”), (name) will point to or pick up the correct text, in (4 out of 5) book selections.

Use Characteristics to Identify Objects

By (date), given (3) objects that are verbally labeled by the teacher and asked to choose which object has a specific physical or performance characteristic, (name) will select the object, for (4 out of 5) object identification activities.

Essential Concepts of Print

By (date), given a preferred book (e.g. hard copy or digital) that is no longer than (5) pages, (name) will independently handle the book (e.g. open it, turn the pages) and observably attend to each page (e.g. eye-gazing, pointing, vocalizing) for at least (3) seconds, for (4 out of 5) preferred books.

Make Requests Using Core Vocabulary Words

By (date), while participating in a classroom activity (e.g. shared reading, snack time, art), (name) will make (1) request to an adult or peer using a core vocabulary word (i.e. words that have a functional and academic purpose) through a preferred mode of communication (e.g. vocally, icons, sign language, eye gaze toward word cards), for (4 out of 5) classroom activities.

Identify the Parts of a Book

By date, when given a familiar book and a verbally prompt (i.e. Teacher says “Where is the Title?”) to identify parts of a book, (name) will correctly point to indicated part of a book (i.e. cover, title, page), with no more than (1) repeated question in (4 out of 5) guided-reading lessons.

Distinguish Text from Illustrations

By (date), after completing a shared reading of an illustrated familiar passage at the student’s independent reading level and given a verbal prompt (e.g. “Point to the words in this story.”, “Point to the pictures in this story.”), (name) will point to (1) piece of text and (1) illustration from the passage, in (4 of 5) narrative reading sessions.

Describe Oneself with a Feeling Word

By (date), after a read aloud of an instructional level story and (1) question by the teacher (e.g. “Sophie was really angry in this story. Can you think about this morning or yesterday and describe how you felt?”), (name) will speak (1) sentence, including (1) feeling word (e.g. happy, sad, angry), for (4 of 5) self-reflections.

Recognize and Track an Object by Name

By (date), after a preview of an object and it’s name from a picture walk of an instructional-level, informational text (e.g. tractor in a book about construction), shown (2) objects (one that represents the previewed object and one that is different), and when prompted by the teacher (“Point to the tractor that looks like the one from the book.”), (name) will point to the object, in (4 of 5) reading sessions.

Recognize a Character's Name from a Story

By (date), when verbally asked to make a selection between (2) familiar stories (e.g. “Let’s read the book about the dog, which book is that?”, “Can you get the book about David to read?”), (name) will point to or pick up the correct text, in (4 out of 5) book selections.

Use Characteristics to Identify Objects

By (date), given (3) objects that are verbally labeled by the teacher and asked to choose which object has a specific physical or performance characteristic, (name) will select the object, for (4 out of 5) object identification activities.

Essential Concepts of Print

By (date), given a preferred book (e.g. hard copy or digital) that is no longer than (5) pages, (name) will independently handle the book (e.g. open it, turn the pages) and observably attend to each page (e.g. eye-gazing, pointing, vocalizing) for at least (3) seconds, for (4 out of 5) preferred books.

Make Requests Using Core Vocabulary Words

By (date), while participating in a classroom activity (e.g. shared reading, snack time, art), (name) will make (1) request to an adult or peer using a core vocabulary word (i.e. words that have a functional and academic purpose) through a preferred mode of communication (e.g. vocally, icons, sign language, eye gaze toward word cards), for (4 out of 5) classroom activities.

Identify the Parts of a Book

By date, when given a familiar book and a verbally prompt (i.e. Teacher says “Where is the Title?”) to identify parts of a book, (name) will correctly point to indicated part of a book (i.e. cover, title, page), with no more than (1) repeated question in (4 out of 5) guided-reading lessons.

Distinguish Text from Illustrations

By (date), after completing a shared reading of an illustrated familiar passage at the student’s independent reading level and given a verbal prompt (e.g. “Point to the words in this story.”, “Point to the pictures in this story.”), (name) will point to (1) piece of text and (1) illustration from the passage, in (4 of 5) narrative reading sessions.

Describe Oneself with a Feeling Word

By (date), after a read aloud of an instructional level story and (1) question by the teacher (e.g. “Sophie was really angry in this story. Can you think about this morning or yesterday and describe how you felt?”), (name) will speak (1) sentence, including (1) feeling word (e.g. happy, sad, angry), for (4 of 5) self-reflections.

Recognize and Track an Object by Name

By (date), after a preview of an object and it’s name from a picture walk of an instructional-level, informational text (e.g. tractor in a book about construction), shown (2) objects (one that represents the previewed object and one that is different), and when prompted by the teacher (“Point to the tractor that looks like the one from the book.”), (name) will point to the object, in (4 of 5) reading sessions.

Recognize a Character's Name from a Story

By (date), when verbally asked to make a selection between (2) familiar stories (e.g. “Let’s read the book about the dog, which book is that?”, “Can you get the book about David to read?”), (name) will point to or pick up the correct text, in (4 out of 5) book selections.

Use Characteristics to Identify Objects

By (date), given (3) objects that are verbally labeled by the teacher and asked to choose which object has a specific physical or performance characteristic, (name) will select the object, for (4 out of 5) object identification activities.

Essential Concepts of Print

By (date), given a preferred book (e.g. hard copy or digital) that is no longer than (5) pages, (name) will independently handle the book (e.g. open it, turn the pages) and observably attend to each page (e.g. eye-gazing, pointing, vocalizing) for at least (3) seconds, for (4 out of 5) preferred books.

Make Requests Using Core Vocabulary Words

By (date), while participating in a classroom activity (e.g. shared reading, snack time, art), (name) will make (1) request to an adult or peer using a core vocabulary word (i.e. words that have a functional and academic purpose) through a preferred mode of communication (e.g. vocally, icons, sign language, eye gaze toward word cards), for (4 out of 5) classroom activities.

Find a Picture that Reflects an Action

By (date), after reading a familiar story with a classmate , given (3) illustration choices , and asked (1) question by the teacher (e.g. “Which of these pictures shows an action from the story you just read.”), (name) will verbally state the illustration (e.g. “Picture A”), for (4 of 5) fiction story reviews.

Use Visual Headings

By (date), after a picture walk of an informational chapter book with an illustrated table of contents and asked to identify (1) chapter (e.g. “We just explored this book about farm animals. Which chapter is about cows?), (name) will select the chapter from (3) choices in the table of contents, in (4 of 5) chapter identifications.

Recognize a Familiar Person

By (date), when presented with (2) images of people, one of whom is familiar and one of whom is a stranger, and asked to identify the familiar person, (name) will identify the familiar person (e.g. by stating, pointing, using eye gaze), in (4 of 5) recognition activities.

Identify Objects by Characteristics

By (date), given a verbal prompt to identify (1) object based on (1) physical characteristic, (name) will select which of (3) of the same objects has the specified characteristic, for (4 out of 5) object selection activities.

Identify a Synonym

By (date), given a written and illustrated word card, and asked to choose which of (3) other written and illustrated word cards has the same meaning as the given word, (name) will select the answer, for (4 out of 5) word comparisons.

Identify Words Associated with Feelings

By (date), when asked to identify which word from a familiar text is associated with a feeling, (name) will choose the answer from (3) written and illustrated word options, for (4 out of 5) vocabulary activities.

Attend to Text Features in a Book

By (date), given a preferred book, (e.g. hard copy or digital) that is no longer than (10) pages, (name) will handle the book (e.g. open it, turn the pages) and independently attend to at least (1) text feature on each page (e.g. words, illustrations) for at least (3) seconds (e.g touching, pointing, eye-gazing, pressing a pre-recorded AAC device), for (8 out of 10) pages or with (80)% accuracy.

Find a Picture that Reflects an Action

By (date), after reading a familiar story with a classmate , given (3) illustration choices , and asked (1) question by the teacher (e.g. “Which of these pictures shows an action from the story you just read.”), (name) will verbally state the illustration (e.g. “Picture A”), for (4 of 5) fiction story reviews.

Use Visual Headings

By (date), after a picture walk of an informational chapter book with an illustrated table of contents and asked to identify (1) chapter (e.g. “We just explored this book about farm animals. Which chapter is about cows?), (name) will select the chapter from (3) choices in the table of contents, in (4 of 5) chapter identifications.

Recognize a Familiar Person

By (date), when presented with (2) images of people, one of whom is familiar and one of whom is a stranger, and asked to identify the familiar person, (name) will identify the familiar person (e.g. by stating, pointing, using eye gaze), in (4 of 5) recognition activities.

Identify Objects by Characteristics

By (date), given a verbal prompt to identify (1) object based on (1) physical characteristic, (name) will select which of (3) of the same objects has the specified characteristic, for (4 out of 5) object selection activities.

Identify Opposites

By (date), when asked if a pair of written and illustrated words are opposites, (name) will state “yes” or “no,” for (4 out of 5) opposites identification activities.

Make a Comparison

By (date), when asked to describe a similarity or difference between (2) items from a familiar text that are within the same category, (name) will answer verbally with (1) or more words, for (4 out of 5) informational comparisons.

Attend to Text Features in a Book

By (date), given a preferred book, (e.g. hard copy or digital) that is no longer than (10) pages, (name) will handle the book (e.g. open it, turn the pages) and independently attend to at least (1) text feature on each page (e.g. words, illustrations) for at least (3) seconds (e.g touching, pointing, eye-gazing, pressing a pre-recorded AAC device), for (8 out of 10) pages or with (80)% accuracy.

Find a Picture that Reflects an Action

By (date), after reading a familiar story with a classmate , given (3) illustration choices , and asked (1) question by the teacher (e.g. “Which of these pictures shows an action from the story you just read.”), (name) will verbally state the illustration (e.g. “Picture A”), for (4 of 5) fiction story reviews.

Use Visual Headings

By (date), after a picture walk of an informational chapter book with an illustrated table of contents and asked to identify (1) chapter (e.g. “We just explored this book about farm animals. Which chapter is about cows?), (name) will select the chapter from (3) choices in the table of contents, in (4 of 5) chapter identifications.

Recognize a Familiar Person

By (date), when presented with (2) images of people, one of whom is familiar and one of whom is a stranger, and asked to identify the familiar person, (name) will identify the familiar person (e.g. by stating, pointing, using eye gaze), in (4 of 5) recognition activities.

Identify Objects by Characteristics

By (date), given a verbal prompt to identify (1) object based on (1) physical characteristic, (name) will select which of (3) of the same objects has the specified characteristic, for (4 out of 5) object selection activities.

Attend to Text Features in a Book

By (date), given a preferred book, (e.g. hard copy or digital) that is no longer than (10) pages, (name) will handle the book (e.g. open it, turn the pages) and independently attend to at least (1) text feature on each page (e.g. words, illustrations) for at least (3) seconds (e.g touching, pointing, eye-gazing, pressing a pre-recorded AAC device), for (8 out of 10) pages or with (80)% accuracy.

Sorts Pictures of Things that are Real or Fictional

By (date), given a set of (10) images (e.g., photographs or illustrations) from two categories (e.g., five images of real animals and five images of fictional animals) and a verbal prompt (e.g. “Which one is real? Which one is not real?”), (student) will sort at least (8) images into the correct group: “real” or “not real” for (4 out of 5) two-category sorting activities.

Determine a Word's Meaning

By (date), when asked to define a specific word in a familiar text, after (1) guiding question from the teacher, (name) will choose the definition from (3) written and/or verbal definition choices, for (3 out of 3) context clue exercises.

Describe the Meaning of Common Idioms

By (date), immediately after watching a video clip of what each idiom looks like in context (e.g. video of a man paying for a car using a bucket of money with the caption "It costs an arm and a leg"), when given (5) common idioms (e.g. costs an arm and a leg, blessing in disguise, feeling blue), (name) will verbally describe the meaning, using no more than (1) verbal prompts (e.g. Teacher says "Remember what it looked like in the video") and verbal choices (e.g. Teacher says "When something costs an arm and a leg, it means it is expensive or cheap?") in (3 of 5) idioms, for (4 of 5) idiom activities.

Identify an Antonym or Synonym

By (date), during a read aloud of a familiar text, when verbally prompted by the teacher to identify (1) synonym or (1) antonym of a given word, (name) will select (e.g. point, state, eye gaze) a written and illustrated word choice from (3) options, for (4 out of 5) synonyms or antonyms.

Select Content-Specific Vocabulary Current Goal

By (date), when given a previously-taught topic (e.g. weather, animal behaviors, money) and a bank of (5) related and unrelated words, (name) will circle the words related to the topic, for (3 out of 3) content-specific vocabulary exercises.

Sorts Pictures of Things that are Real or Fictional

By (date), given a set of (10) images (e.g., photographs or illustrations) from two categories (e.g., five images of real animals and five images of fictional animals) and a verbal prompt (e.g. “Which one is real? Which one is not real?”), (student) will sort at least (8) images into the correct group: “real” or “not real” for (4 out of 5) two-category sorting activities.

Determine a Word's Meaning

By (date), when asked to define a specific word in a familiar text, after (1) guiding question from the teacher, (name) will choose the definition from (3) written and/or verbal definition choices, for (3 out of 3) context clue exercises.

Describe the Meaning of Common Idioms

By (date), immediately after watching a video clip of what each idiom looks like in context (e.g. video of a man paying for a car using a bucket of money with the caption "It costs an arm and a leg"), when given (5) common idioms (e.g. costs an arm and a leg, blessing in disguise, feeling blue), (name) will verbally describe the meaning, using no more than (1) verbal prompts (e.g. Teacher says "Remember what it looked like in the video") and verbal choices (e.g. Teacher says "When something costs an arm and a leg, it means it is expensive or cheap?") in (3 of 5) idioms, for (4 of 5) idiom activities.

Identify an Antonym or Synonym

By (date), during a read aloud of a familiar text, when verbally prompted by the teacher to identify (1) synonym or (1) antonym of a given word, (name) will select (e.g. point, state, eye gaze) a written and illustrated word choice from (3) options, for (4 out of 5) synonyms or antonyms.

Select Content-Specific Vocabulary Current Goal

By (date), when given a previously-taught topic (e.g. weather, animal behaviors, money) and a bank of (5) related and unrelated words, (name) will circle the words related to the topic, for (3 out of 3) content-specific vocabulary exercises.

Sorts Pictures of Things that are Real or Fictional

By (date), given a set of (10) images (e.g., photographs or illustrations) from two categories (e.g., five images of real animals and five images of fictional animals) and a verbal prompt (e.g. “Which one is real? Which one is not real?”), (student) will sort at least (8) images into the correct group: “real” or “not real” for (4 out of 5) two-category sorting activities.

Determine a Word's Meaning

By (date), when asked to define a specific word in a familiar text, after (1) guiding question from the teacher, (name) will choose the definition from (3) written and/or verbal definition choices, for (3 out of 3) context clue exercises.

Describe the Meaning of Common Idioms

By (date), immediately after watching a video clip of what each idiom looks like in context (e.g. video of a man paying for a car using a bucket of money with the caption "It costs an arm and a leg"), when given (5) common idioms (e.g. costs an arm and a leg, blessing in disguise, feeling blue), (name) will verbally describe the meaning, using no more than (1) verbal prompts (e.g. Teacher says "Remember what it looked like in the video") and verbal choices (e.g. Teacher says "When something costs an arm and a leg, it means it is expensive or cheap?") in (3 of 5) idioms, for (4 of 5) idiom activities.

Identify an Antonym or Synonym

By (date), during a read aloud of a familiar text, when verbally prompted by the teacher to identify (1) synonym or (1) antonym of a given word, (name) will select (e.g. point, state, eye gaze) a written and illustrated word choice from (3) options, for (4 out of 5) synonyms or antonyms.

Select Content-Specific Vocabulary Current Goal

By (date), when given a previously-taught topic (e.g. weather, animal behaviors, money) and a bank of (5) related and unrelated words, (name) will circle the words related to the topic, for (3 out of 3) content-specific vocabulary exercises.

Word Choice for Sentence Completion

By (date), when given a (3-5) sentence fill-in-the blank reading passage from a familiar text with picture supports (e.g. adapted text with pictures replacing select words), (name) will correctly select the missing word a choice of (10) words in a word bank to fill in each blank in the passage, within (15) minutes, in (3 out of 4) fill-in-the-blank reading passages.

Sort Objects or Images Based on Two Distinct Categories

By (date), given a set of (10) real objects or images representing two different categories (e.g., food, drinks), and a verbal prompt (e.g., “Which one do we eat? Which one do we drink?”), (student) will sort at least (8) objects/images in (4 out of 5) two-category sorting activities.

Recognize a Synonym

By (date), when given (1) word from a familiar text, after the teacher asks a guiding question, (name) will identify which of (3) word options is a synonym for the given word, for (3 out of 3) synonym activities.

Word Choice for Sentence Completion

By (date), when given a (3-5) sentence fill-in-the blank reading passage from a familiar text with picture supports (e.g. adapted text with pictures replacing select words), (name) will correctly select the missing word a choice of (10) words in a word bank to fill in each blank in the passage, within (15) minutes, in (3 out of 4) fill-in-the-blank reading passages.

Sort Objects or Images Based on Two Distinct Categories

By (date), given a set of (10) real objects or images representing two different categories (e.g., food, drinks), and a verbal prompt (e.g., “Which one do we eat? Which one do we drink?”), (student) will sort at least (8) objects/images in (4 out of 5) two-category sorting activities.

Recognize a Synonym

By (date), when given (1) word from a familiar text, after the teacher asks a guiding question, (name) will identify which of (3) word options is a synonym for the given word, for (3 out of 3) synonym activities.

Word Choice for Sentence Completion

By (date), when given a (3-5) sentence fill-in-the blank reading passage from a familiar text with picture supports (e.g. adapted text with pictures replacing select words), (name) will correctly select the missing word a choice of (10) words in a word bank to fill in each blank in the passage, within (15) minutes, in (3 out of 4) fill-in-the-blank reading passages.

Sort Objects or Images Based on Two Distinct Categories

By (date), given a set of (10) real objects or images representing two different categories (e.g., food, drinks), and a verbal prompt (e.g., “Which one do we eat? Which one do we drink?”), (student) will sort at least (8) objects/images in (4 out of 5) two-category sorting activities.

Recognize a Synonym

By (date), when given (1) word from a familiar text, after the teacher asks a guiding question, (name) will identify which of (3) word options is a synonym for the given word, for (3 out of 3) synonym activities.

Word Choice for Sentence Completion

By (date), when given a (3-5) sentence fill-in-the blank reading passage from a familiar text with picture supports (e.g. adapted text with pictures replacing select words), (name) will correctly select the missing word a choice of (10) words in a word bank to fill in each blank in the passage, within (15) minutes, in (3 out of 4) fill-in-the-blank reading passages.

Sort Objects or Images Based on Two Distinct Categories

By (date), given a set of (10) real objects or images representing two different categories (e.g., food, drinks), and a verbal prompt (e.g., “Which one do we eat? Which one do we drink?”), (student) will sort at least (8) objects/images in (4 out of 5) two-category sorting activities.

Recognize a Synonym

By (date), when given (1) word from a familiar text, after the teacher asks a guiding question, (name) will identify which of (3) word options is a synonym for the given word, for (3 out of 3) synonym activities.

Referenced Strategies

  • Peer Buddies

    A peer buddy is a student or group of students who support a student with a disability to enhance or facilitate positive peer interactions, ...

  • Graduated Guidance

    Graduated guidance is an instructional technique in which the teacher provides manual prompts to complete a sequence of actions and then fad...

  • Adapted Text

    Adapted text is any text that has been changed from its original print format. This includes a variety of strategies to make traditional tex...

  • Multiple Representations

    Multiple representations allow students to see the same mathematical expression or mathematical relationship presented in more than one form...

  • Preferred Topic or Text

    Allowing students to select a preferred topic or text for a project increases engagement and balances the cognitive load when students are l...

  • Peer Tutoring

    Peer tutoring is having peers actively involved with teaching each other and reinforcing learning of academic skills. With peer tutoring, th...

  • Word Bank

    A word bank is a list of words that is created by the teacher or student that relates to the core content and academic material the student ...

  • Preteaching

    Preteaching is the teaching of vocabulary, language or content knowledge to students in preparation of an academic activity. Preteaching as ...