Support Claims by Citing Evidence

By (date), after reading a nonfiction text and given a written, multi-step prompt, (name) will respond in writing and include (3) pieces of evidence from the text that support claims for (4 out of 5) nonfiction texts. **Example Prompts**
-Why was Robert Oppenheimer conflicted about the Manhattan Project?
-Malala Yousafzai asserts that “education is the only solution.” To what extent does she support this claim in her speech?
-In “Forgotten Man,” Roosevelt discussed three problems faced by the United States. What were three of the problems he discussed and what were his solutions? **Example Non-Fiction Text**
[[http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=88408|The Forgotten Man]] **Example Student Response**
He argued that farmers are not able to afford to buy goods and services, so they should be able to charge more for their products than it costs them to produce. He claimed that homeowners are being displaced because they are unable to pay their mortgages, so the government should provide assistance to local lending organizations. Finally, he stated that foreign nations are not paying enough to the United States for products, so the United States should enact a tariff policy for an exchange of goods.

By (date), after reading a nonfiction text and given a written, multi-step prompt, (name) will respond in writing and include (3) pieces of evidence from the text that support claims for (4 out of 5) nonfiction texts. **Example Prompts**
-Why was Robert Oppenheimer conflicted about the Manhattan Project?
-Malala Yousafzai asserts that “education is the only solution.” To what extent does she support this claim in her speech?
-In “Forgotten Man,” Roosevelt discussed three problems faced by the United States. What were three of the problems he discussed and what were his solutions? **Example Non-Fiction Text**
The Forgotten Man **Example Student Response**
He argued that farmers are not able to afford to buy goods and services, so they should be able to charge more for their products than it costs them to produce. He claimed that homeowners are being displaced because they are unable to pay their mortgages, so the government should provide assistance to local lending organizations. Finally, he stated that foreign nations are not paying enough to the United States for products, so the United States should enact a tariff policy for an exchange of goods.

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  • By (date), after reading a nonfiction text with a [[partner reading|partner]] and given a [[modified assignment|modified]] written, multi-step prompt, (name) will respond in writing and include (3) pieces of evidence from the text that support claims for (4 out of 5) nonfiction texts. **Example Non-Fiction Text**
    [[http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=88408|The Forgotten Man]] **Example Modified Prompt**
    In “Forgotten Man,” Roosevelt highlighted 3 problems. Provide one piece of textual evidence to support each of the problems below.
    1) Farmers are not able to afford to buy goods and services.
    2) Homeowners are being displaced because they are unable to pay their mortgages.
    3) Foreign nations are not able to pay the United States enough for products. **Example Student Response**
    1) Farmers should be able to charge more for their products than it costs them to produce.
    2) Government should provide assistance to local lending organizations.
    3) The United States should enact a tariff policy on an exchange of goods.

    By (date), after reading a nonfiction text with a partner and given a modified written, multi-step prompt, (name) will respond in writing and include (3) pieces of evidence from the text that support claims for (4 out of 5) nonfiction texts. **Example Non-Fiction Text**
    The Forgotten Man **Example Modified Prompt**
    In “Forgotten Man,” Roosevelt highlighted 3 problems. Provide one piece of textual evidence to support each of the problems below.
    1) Farmers are not able to afford to buy goods and services.
    2) Homeowners are being displaced because they are unable to pay their mortgages.
    3) Foreign nations are not able to pay the United States enough for products. **Example Student Response**
    1) Farmers should be able to charge more for their products than it costs them to produce.
    2) Government should provide assistance to local lending organizations.
    3) The United States should enact a tariff policy on an exchange of goods.

    Click anywhere to begin editing!
    Your changes are not yet saved
  • By (date), after reading a nonfiction text using [[interactive notetaking| interactive notetaking]] and given a [[modified assignment|modified]] written, multi-step prompt, (name) will complete a [[graphic organizers|graphic organizer]] that includes (3) pieces of evidence from the text for (4 out of 5) nonfiction texts. **Example Non-Fiction Text**
    [[http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=88408|The Forgotten Man]] **Example Modified Prompt**
    On the left are problems Roosevelt proposed in his speech. Fill out the column on the right with his proposed solutions to those problems. **Example Student Response**
    - Problem 1: Farmers are not able to afford to buy goods and services. Solution 1: Farmers should be able to charge more for their products than it costs them to produce.
    - Problem 2: Homeowners are being displaced because they are unable to pay their mortgages. Solution 2: Government should provide assistance to local lending organizations.
    - Problem 3 :Foreign nations are not able to pay for the United States in case for products. Solution 3: The United States tariff policy should provide for an exchange of goods.

    By (date), after reading a nonfiction text using interactive notetaking and given a modified written, multi-step prompt, (name) will complete a graphic organizer that includes (3) pieces of evidence from the text for (4 out of 5) nonfiction texts. **Example Non-Fiction Text**
    The Forgotten Man **Example Modified Prompt**
    On the left are problems Roosevelt proposed in his speech. Fill out the column on the right with his proposed solutions to those problems. **Example Student Response**
    - Problem 1: Farmers are not able to afford to buy goods and services. Solution 1: Farmers should be able to charge more for their products than it costs them to produce.
    - Problem 2: Homeowners are being displaced because they are unable to pay their mortgages. Solution 2: Government should provide assistance to local lending organizations.
    - Problem 3 :Foreign nations are not able to pay for the United States in case for products. Solution 3: The United States tariff policy should provide for an exchange of goods.

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  • By (date), after reading a [[modified text|modified text]] [[read aloud|aloud]] and given a [[modified assignment|modified]] written prompt, (name) will [[multiple choice|choose]] (2) pieces of evidence for (4 out of 5) nonfiction texts. **Example Non-Fiction Text**
    [[http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=88408|The Forgotten Man]] **Example Modified Prompt**
    - Part 1: Roosevelt claimed that farmers could not afford to buy good and services. Which answer choice is a solution to that problem?
    - Part 2: Roosevelt claimed that homeowners were being displaced because they were unable to pay their mortgages. Which answer choice is a solution to that problem? **Example Student Response**
    Part 1: Farmers should be able to charge more for their products than it costs them to produce.
    Part 2: Government should provide assistance to local lending organizations.

    By (date), after reading a modified text aloud and given a modified written prompt, (name) will choose (2) pieces of evidence for (4 out of 5) nonfiction texts. **Example Non-Fiction Text**
    The Forgotten Man **Example Modified Prompt**
    - Part 1: Roosevelt claimed that farmers could not afford to buy good and services. Which answer choice is a solution to that problem?
    - Part 2: Roosevelt claimed that homeowners were being displaced because they were unable to pay their mortgages. Which answer choice is a solution to that problem? **Example Student Response**
    Part 1: Farmers should be able to charge more for their products than it costs them to produce.
    Part 2: Government should provide assistance to local lending organizations.

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UDL-Aligned Strategies About UDL

  • Foster collaboration and communication
    8.3 Partner Reading Pair students or put them in small groups to read, rather than reading independently, to build fluency and provide opportunities to take turns. Reading with a [[partner reading|partner]] allows students to stop and ask clarifying questions or prompt each other to take notes. In partners or groups, they share the responsibility of comprehension. It is important that the teacher be explicit in her directions during partner reading, specifying if students are supposed to take turns every other paragraph or if specific students should have roles during the reading. Teachers can be explicit by instructing students to stop after each paragraph to summarize the main point. When partner reading is paired with an [[adapted text|adapted text]] that includes prompts and space to stop and reflect, partner reading is more successful.
  • UDL II 5.3 Build fluencies with graduated levels of support for practice and performance
    [[Modified Assignment|Modify]] the assignment to provide more support. Instead of requiring that students write a short response, teachers can ask direct questions that require students to demonstrate their mastery of citing text evidence without requiring writing or organizational skills. Teachers can provide a [[graphic organizers|graphic organizer]] that is partially or mostly filled out so students see patterns between claims and supports, problems and solutions, or cause and effect. The graphic organizer could take the form of a table or a web. Teachers can also give students a [[multiple choice|list]] of evidence to use in completing the graphic organizer. This supports students by helping them ignore irrelevant details, especially in longer passages.
  • UDL I 1.1 Offer ways of customizing the display of information
    Provide a [[modified text|modified text]]. Shorten the text, revise unfamiliar words and phrases, and provide a glossary. Give headings to sections that indicate the main idea. This can be completed beforehand to create a modified text, or teachers can guide students through the text with [[metacognitive note-taking|metacognitive note-taking]]. During that process, teachers can highlight sections of the texts that will be applicable to the prompt. During note-taking, teachers can create headings, define vocabulary, and answer questions. Even with a heavily modified text or one that has been annotated, some students will need the text [[read aloud|read aloud]] so they can focus on the skills of providing evidence and not only on comprehension.

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Standards

RI.9-10.1 Key Ideas and Details
RI.9-10.1 Key Ideas and Details
Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

Standard Staircase

Ask Questions About a Text

By (date), after a read aloud of a nonfiction text, when verbally prompted by the teacher (e.g. Teacher says “Tell us about something important that we learned from the text.”), (name) will verbally respond with (1) question or statement about the text (e.g. Student asks “I was wondering how bears know when to wake up from hibernation?”) during (3 out of 3) class discussions.

Identify Person from Familiar Text

By (date), after reading a nonfiction text with the teacher, listening to the teacher model (1) question and answer (e.g. “Who is the postal carrier? The postal carrier is the person who delivers mail to people’s homes.”), and when asked (1) question about a person, object, or place from the text, (name) will verbally answer the question, for (4 of 5) nonfiction reading sessions.

Use Characteristics to Identify Objects

By (date), given (3) objects that are verbally labeled by the teacher and asked to choose which object has a specific physical or performance characteristic, (name) will select the object, for (4 out of 5) object identification activities.

Answer Questions about Details in a Text

By (date), after reading a nonfiction text, when verbally prompted by the teacher (e.g. Teacher says “Tell about something important that you learned from the text.”), (name) will verbally respond with (1) question or statement about the text (e.g. Student asks “I was wondering how bears know when to wake up from hibernation?”) during (3 out of 3) text discussions.

Identify Person from Familiar Text

By (date), after reading a nonfiction text with the teacher, listening to the teacher model (1) question and answer (e.g. “Who is the postal carrier? The postal carrier is the person who delivers mail to people’s homes.”), and when asked (1) question about a person, object, or place from the text, (name) will verbally answer the question, for (4 of 5) nonfiction reading sessions.

Use Characteristics to Identify Objects

By (date), given (3) objects that are verbally labeled by the teacher and asked to choose which object has a specific physical or performance characteristic, (name) will select the object, for (4 out of 5) object identification activities.

Ask/Answer Questions About a Text

By (date), after reading a nonfiction text, when given a set of questions to answer for a small-group text discussion, (name) will verbally or in written form ask or answer at least (3) questions (e.g. Who, What, When, Why, Where, or How) about text details, during (3 of 3) reading sessions.

Identify Person from Familiar Text

By (date), after reading a nonfiction text with the teacher, listening to the teacher model (1) question and answer (e.g. “Who is the postal carrier? The postal carrier is the person who delivers mail to people’s homes.”), and when asked (1) question about a person, object, or place from the text, (name) will verbally answer the question, for (4 of 5) nonfiction reading sessions.

Use Characteristics to Identify Objects

By (date), given (3) objects that are verbally labeled by the teacher and asked to choose which object has a specific physical or performance characteristic, (name) will select the object, for (4 out of 5) object identification activities.

Refer to Textual Evidence

By (date), after reading a nonfiction text and asked a verbal question about what the text says explicitly, (name) will answer the question in writing by referring to (1) detail from the text in (4 out of 5) nonfiction texts.

Use Nonfiction Texts to Ask Questions

By (date) after reading a grade level nonfiction text (e.g. Titanic), (name) will identify (1) explicit key detail (e.g. People thought the Titanic was “unsinkable”) and (1) implicit key detail (e.g. Captain Smith did not expect the Titanic to have any difficulty sailing) and he/she will use these details to develop (2) questions; (1) factual question with a text reference (e.g. On what page did the text explain the reasons why the Titanic was called “unsinkable?”) and (1) inferential question with a text reference (e.g. “What clues in the text led you to believe Captain Smith was not prepared for an emergency?) in (4 out of 5) writing exercises.

Use Questions to Show Comprehension

By (date), after reading a grade level informational text and given a 2-column table labeled “Questions” and “Answers from Text,” (name) will develop (5) questions in the “Questions” column that demonstrate comprehension (e.g. “Which form of matter has a definite shape?”). (Name) will then trade tables with a peer, and use the text to answer (5) questions developed by the peer in the "Answers from Text" column. (Name) will demonstrate mastery in (4 out 5) trials as measured by questions and responses.

Answer Questions Based on a Text

By (date), immediately after reading a instructional-level text (e.g. graphic novel) of his/her choice, (name) will verbally answer at least (3) WH- questions (e.g. who, what, when, where), provided with the text, with no more than (1) sentence frame per question (e.g. Teacher says "The girl went to the..."), in (4 of 5) reading opportunities.

Understands Stories Read in Class

By (date), after a reader's theater of a story in class, (name) will demonstrate understanding of the story by role playing or acting out the answer for (2) comprehension questions (e.g. "What happens to the main character at the beginning of the story?") for (2 out of 3) stories.

Use Text Details to Make Inferences

By (date), when given a (3-4) paragraph of grade level informational passage (e.g. a science article from National Geographic Kids, (student) will infer the main purpose of the passage, write (2-3) sentences about the main purpose, and underline (3-4) examples and details from text that were used to infer the main purpose, for (2 out of 3) passages for (4 out of 4) inference identifying exercises.

Use Textual Evidence to Support Inferences and Conclusions

By (date), after reading a grade-level, nonfiction text (e.g. a biography of Abraham Lincoln), when given an inference-analysis prompt (e.g. "Use two details from the text to explain how Abraham Lincoln was an honest man."), (name) will write a (3-5) sentence paragraph stating (2) details from the text and explaining how the details support his/her understanding of the inference in (5 out of 5) inference-analysis opportunities.

Refer to Textual Evidence

By (date), after reading a nonfiction text and given a verbal claim about that text, (name) will support the claim by referring to (2) details in writing from the text for (4 out of 5) nonfiction texts.

Answer Questions Based on a Text

By (date), immediately after reading a instructional-level text (e.g. graphic novel) of his/her choice, (name) will verbally answer at least (3) WH- questions (e.g. who, what, when, where), provided with the text, with no more than (1) sentence frame per question (e.g. Teacher says "The girl went to the..."), in (4 of 5) reading opportunities.

Understands Stories Read in Class

By (date), after a reader's theater of a story in class, (name) will demonstrate understanding of the story by role playing or acting out the answer for (2) comprehension questions (e.g. "What happens to the main character at the beginning of the story?") for (2 out of 3) stories.

Quote Textual Evidence

By (date), after reading a nonfiction text and given a verbal claim about the text, (name) will support the claim by writing (2) quoted details from the text for (4 out of 5) nonfiction texts.

Use Quotes From Text to Support Thinking

By (date), after reading a grade-level informational text and given a verbal and visual writing prompt (e.g. Teacher says and writes on board "In approximately 200 words, use two quotes to support an explanation of the author’s purpose"), (name) will use at least (2) direct quotes from the text to support both (1) denotative claim and (1) inferential claim about the text when writing a (2)-paragraph response according to a teacher-created rubric, for (3 of 3) essay responses.

Answer Questions Based on a Text

By (date), immediately after reading a instructional-level text (e.g. graphic novel) of his/her choice, (name) will verbally answer at least (3) WH- questions (e.g. who, what, when, where), provided with the text, with no more than (1) sentence frame per question (e.g. Teacher says "The girl went to the..."), in (4 of 5) reading opportunities.

Understands Stories Read in Class

By (date), after a reader's theater of a story in class, (name) will demonstrate understanding of the story by role playing or acting out the answer for (2) comprehension questions (e.g. "What happens to the main character at the beginning of the story?") for (2 out of 3) stories.

Cite Evidence to Support Analysis

After reading text written at grade level, (name) will support a central idea or key conclusion of the text by using (2 or more) pieces of textual evidence (one explicit, and one implicit) to support their analysis for (4 out of 5) texts.

Identify Evidence for a Text's Claim

By (date), after listening to a read aloud of a familiar text, when given a verbal claim about the text (e.g. Teacher says "How do you know that character A is upset with character B?"), (name) will identify at least (2) pieces of evidence from the text by pointing to a photo answer choice (e.g. photos portraying different scenes in the story) from a field of (4) picture answer choices within (10) seconds of the verbal prompt, for (4 out of 5) story comprehension activities.

Cite Evidence to Support Analysis

After reading a text written at grade level, (name) will support a central idea or key conclusion of the text by using (4 or more) pieces of textual evidence (one explicit, and one implicit) to support their analysis for (4 out of 5) texts.

Identify Evidence for a Text's Claim

By (date), after listening to a read aloud of a familiar text, when given a verbal claim about the text (e.g. Teacher says "How do you know that character A is upset with character B?"), (name) will identify at least (2) pieces of evidence from the text by pointing to a photo answer choice (e.g. photos portraying different scenes in the story) from a field of (4) picture answer choices within (10) seconds of the verbal prompt, for (4 out of 5) story comprehension activities.

Cite Strongest Evidence to Support Analysis

By (date), after reading a grade-level informational text, (name) will analyze the text by writing a (5)-sentence paragraph that states the central idea or key conclusion of the text and uses at least (3) pieces of strongest textual evidence (e.g., two explicit, and one implicit) to support their analysis for (4 out of 5) central idea and details activities.

Identify Evidence for a Text's Claim

By (date), after listening to a read aloud of a familiar text, when given a verbal claim about the text (e.g. Teacher says "How do you know that character A is upset with character B?"), (name) will identify at least (2) pieces of evidence from the text by pointing to a photo answer choice (e.g. photos portraying different scenes in the story) from a field of (4) picture answer choices within (10) seconds of the verbal prompt, for (4 out of 5) story comprehension activities.

Support Claims by Citing Evidence

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By (date), after reading a nonfiction text and given a written, multi-step prompt, (name) will respond in writing and include (3) pieces of evidence from the text that support claims for (4 out of 5) nonfiction texts.

Cite Evidence from Informational Texts

By (date), after reading a grade-level informational text, (name) will correctly respond to (3 out of 4) short-answer, analytical questions that require (him/her) to infer information from explicit information in the text (e.g. “In his 2005 commencement speech at Stanford University, what did Steve Jobs mean when he said that getting fired from Apple was "the best thing that could have ever happened" to him?) by writing (3-6) sentences, including (1-2) citations of textual evidence from which each inference is logically drawn to support (his/her) answer, for each question for 3 out of 4 texts.

Use Evidence to Answer a Question

By (date), when asked a who, what, where or when question about a familiar informational text, (name) will choose the answer (e.g. by pointing, stating, using eye gaze) from (3) explicit textual details, for (3 out of 3) informational text analyses.

Cite Evidence to Analyze Informational Texts

By (date), after reading a grade-level informational text, (name) will write an analytical essay of (500) words (e.g. "After reading Amy Tan's 'Mother Tongue,' analyze the author's view on how a person's language skills shape his/her public perception.") that provides (5) citations from the text as logical justification for inferences made about the text and (1) reference to and commentary about a matter that remains uncertain for (3 out of 4) texts.

Cite Textual Evidence to Support Analysis

By (date), after reading a nonfiction text and given a written, multi-step prompt, (name) will write a short response that includes (3) pieces of evidence from the text for (4 out of 5) nonfiction texts.

Use Evidence to Answer a Question

By (date), when asked a who, what, where or when question about a familiar informational text, (name) will choose the answer (e.g. by pointing, stating, using eye gaze) from (3) explicit textual details, for (3 out of 3) informational text analyses.

Referenced Strategies

  • Modified Assignment

    Teachers may provide modified assignments when grade-level work is inappropriate for students. Modified assignments assess the same skill(s)...

  • Multiple Choice

    Before students are comfortable generating a free-form response, they can demonstrate their knowledge by selecting the correct answer(s) fro...

  • Graphic Organizers

    Graphic Organizers are visual representations of text. They can be used to organize facts and/or specific features of fiction or non-fiction...

  • Interactive Notetaking

    Interactive Notetaking is a process in which the teacher leads students through the notetaking process. The teacher may use specific notetak...

  • Modified Text

    Modified Texts are grade level reading passages that have been simplified both in language, length, and complexity to meet the instructional...

  • Partner Reading

    Rather than reading independently, students can be divided into pairs or small groups and read the text aloud together or take turns reading...